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浅谈灵璧石的鉴别、鉴赏、收藏与保养的方法

文字:[大][中][小] 2015-5-26  浏览次数:


石文化具有极强的生命力和吸引力,灵璧石作为古代四大名石的第一石,宋代杜绾所作的《云林石谱》116种奇石之首,历代名人雅士、帝王将相、达官富商都把灵璧石作为收藏赏玩第一石种,名声斐然,赞誉有加,这已是不争的定论。
Mini-sculpture have extremely strong vitality and attraction, lingbi stone as the four most famous ancient stone first stone, the song dynasty du wan's "yunlin stone spectrum of 116 kinds of stone, dining, Kings and princes, a rich businessman celebrities are the lingbi stone as a collection of enjoying the first stone, reputation, praise, it is indisputable.
八十年代起,国内外再次掀起的奇石收藏与经营热潮中,灵璧石仍占据极为重要的位置,特别是面临灵璧石无度无序的开采,资源已临枯竭,精品珍品灵璧石已很少见到,更赋予灵璧石极大的收藏和鉴赏价值。同时,也令人痛心地看到,它所引发的为一时经济利益,石农中人为打磨、钻洞、涂色等手段,冒充灵璧石,使得不少初涉灵璧石的石友,望而却步,不敢冒然购买,严重损坏了灵璧石收藏经营秩序和“第一石”的美誉。解决这种有扩大趋势的严重现象,除加大打击力度外,更重要的是掌握辨别、鉴赏的方法,学会并提高鉴赏、分析收藏与保养的水平。 本文拟从如何辨别是不是灵璧石,如何鉴赏灵璧石的品位,以及如何收藏与保养灵璧石三个方面,谈些实践经验与方法,供广大石友鉴赏、经营、收藏参考需要。
The eighty s, the domestic and foreign stone collection and management to upsurge again, lingbi stone still occupies very important position, especially facing lingbi stone disordered mining, resources are drying up, exquisite treasures lingbi stone is rarely seen, more gift lingbi stone collection and appreciation value. At the same time, also sad to see that it's all for the economic interests, agriculture in the artificial stone grinding, drill holes, painting, pretend to be lingbi stone, which many new Shi You, lingbi stone, dare not presume to buy, severely damaged the lingbi stone collection management order and the reputation of "the first stone". Resolve the expand trend of serious phenomenon, besides stepping up his efforts, more important is to grasp the method of distinguish, appreciation, to learn and improve the level of appreciation, analysis, collection and maintenance. This article from how to identify whether the lingbi stone, the grade of the appreciation of lingbi stone, three aspects and how to collect and maintain lingbi stone, talk about some experience and methods, for the needs of Shi You appreciation, management, collection reference.
一、 灵璧石的辨别方法
A method to identify, lingbi stone
(一) 灵璧石的特点 灵璧石早在战国时期就作为美石贡品,其特点正如宋代诗人赞誉的“灵璧一石天下奇,声如青铜色碧玉”而著称,以“瘦、皱、透、漏”的千奇百态的外形变化和坚韧、温润、细腻、滑如凝脂和形态逼真而倍受宠爱。灵璧石因以上特点而独占奇石之首,这也是人们对灵璧石的鉴赏收藏、喜爱有加的根本所在。
(a) the characteristics of lingbi stone Lingbi stone as early as the warring states period as a beautiful stone tribute, its characteristic as the song dynasty poet praise "lingbi stone heaven, such as bronze jade", to "thin, wrinkled, penetration, the" thousand odd delighting appearance changes and tenacity, moist, smooth and slippery as coagulate fat and vivid and much beloved. Lingbi stone, due to the above characteristics exclusive stone, this is why people appreciation collection of lingbi stone, like it.
(二) 灵璧石的辨别方法 《中国灵璧石谱》(王文正著),把灵璧石划分为52大类400多个品种,最大方便了广大初涉者辨别灵璧石提供了参照样本,也不可否言,初涉者难免有“眼花缭乱”、无法深入具体的困惑。尤其灵璧石的当家品种,即传统意义上的专指的磬石类灵璧石,如何辨别、从哪里入手、第一点看什么、接着看什么、当即定论是不是灵璧石,然后再鉴赏分析确定它的艺术、经济和收藏价值,这是极为重要而又必须掌握的简单的方法。 以上所谈的灵璧石特点多指灵璧磬石,因为它是第一石的所指。其他石种如花白灵、蛐蟮、木纹、碗螺、条带、莲花等应该说比较容易鉴别,只是多从它的形态、完整性、神似、意境等方面考虑其品位就行了,最难的是磬石类的辨别鉴赏。 灵璧石依据《尚书?禹贡》中论述,泗水之滨多产美石,称为泗滨浮磬,以及米芾所谈的鉴赏标准,也是指灵璧磬石,它产于灵璧县北45公里的渔沟镇东2公里的磬云山。
Distinguish method (2) the lingbi stone "lingbi stone spectrum in China" (wen-zheng wang), divide the lingbi stone for 52 kinds of more than 400 varieties, the most convenient the ChuSheZhe distinguish lingbi stone with the reference sample, also could not say, ChuSheZhe "dazzling" and are difficult to be unable to further confusion. Especially take charge of lingbi stone varieties, namely in the traditional sense of the points of qing stone class lingbi stone, how to identify, from where to start, the first point to see what, and then see what, immediately clear whether lingbi stone, then determine its artistic appreciation analysis, economic, and the collection value, it is very important and must master the simple methods. Of lingbi stone feature discussed above refers to the lingbi qing stone, because it is referred to in the first stone. Other kinds of stone flower spirit, QuShan, wood grain, bowl screw, stripe, lotus, such as easy to identify, it should be said, just from its form, more integrity, forms and artistic conception into consideration its grade, the hardest is qing stone class discrimination appreciation. Lingbi stone, on the basis of "? yugong ministers", in surabaya of prolific beautiful stone, called see marina floating qing, and talk about MiFei appreciation standards, is refers to the lingbi qing stone, it originated in lingbi 45 km north of yu qing yunshan trench town east 2 kilometers.
本人多次到此考察过,有石摩、石人、篆刻记载,从古到今始终被认为灵璧石中最具收藏价值的石种。因此,不少石农进行人为加工,钻洞、涂刷、上色来冒充的,也多是此类。下面就谈谈具体辨别的方法顺序。
I many times to the examined, recorded Shi Ma, survey, seal cutting, throughout history has always been considered lingbi stone stone of the types of the most value for collection. As a result, many Shi Nong artificial processing, drill hole, besmear to brush paint, to pretend to be, also is such. The following is about the method of the distinguish order.
第一、先看该石的背面即石根或叫底。石根有没有红黄色的砂浆附着上面,而且硬化,而不是胶粘的。个别小块奇石可能砂浆基本清掉,但留下的石根仍清晰可见,有之,再看以下两条,如没有就可判定可能是冒充的。
First, look at the stone Shi Gen or call on the back of the bottom. If there is any Shi Gen titian's mortar adhesion and hardening, instead of adhesive. Individual small pieces of stone may mortar basic clear, but left Shi Gen is still clearly visible, have it, look at the following two, if not can judge may be pretending to be.
第二、看石肤、石纹。磬石的石肤:光华温润,滑如凝脂,极具手感(瘦、皱、透、漏的特点不影响石肤)。石肌中有着特殊的白灰色石纹,其纹理自然清晰流畅。原始的纹沟呈“V”型,人为机械加工的石纹呈“U”型,纹色也不自然,如用水洗,人为的石纹即刻显现,水干的慢,原始的石纹干得快。 渔沟街西4公里的白马山所产的纹石,石肤石肌除看与磬石一样,实际优于磬石、更具美感。常见的石纹有胡桃纹、龟回纹、蝴蝶纹、鸡爪纹、水纹,自然流畅,加上石肌、色彩表现出的原始风霜味和音乐韵律感,充分体现了苍古厚重、自然含蓄的鬼斧神工的造化之美。
Second, the stone, stone. Qing stone stoneskin: steaming guanghua, slippery as coagulate fat, feel extremely (a thin, wrinkled, transparent, does not affect the characteristics of leakage stoneskin). Stone has a special white gray stone in the muscle, its natural texture clear fluid. The original grain ditch a "V" shaped, artificial stone is "U" type mechanical processing, grain color is not natural, such as water washing, man-made stone appeared immediately, water dry slowly, the original stone dry quickly. Yu street west 4 km of grain from the white horse hill stone, Shi Fushi muscle in addition to look like qing stone, actually better than qing stone, more aesthetic feeling. Common stone with walnut grain, turtle back, butterfly, chicken feet, lines, water lines, natural, and stone, color to show the original weathered and music rhythm, fully embodies the antiquity massiness, implicit beauty of the nature of the uncanny workmanship of nature.
第三、弹敲听音。由于灵璧石属于石灰岩岩石,摩氏硬度在4―7度,磬石在6度左右,所以用手指弹敲或用木棒敲打,可听到悦耳清脆的声音,古代制磬和所谓的“八音石”,就是这磬云山产的灵璧磬石,如没有声音发出,就要考虑其真伪了。
Third, play on listening. Because lingbi stone are limestone rocks, mohs hardness in 4-7 degrees, qing stone at about 6 degrees, so hitting or knock sticks with fingers, can hear the sound of the sweet and crisp, the ancient system of qing and the so-called "eight stone", is made in the qing yunshan lingbi qing stone, such as no sound, is about to consider its authenticity.
以上三条标准,就是辨别灵璧石真伪的首要标准。广大石友在实践中可多向专家请教,多与当地石农交流,便会很快掌握这些辨别方法的,但是随着市场需要,灵璧石热的兴起,不少石农“加工”技术的改进变化,又为我们辨别真伪不断提出新的挑战,因此,辨别真伪的研究,也需要不断加强和提高。
The above three criteria, is the first standard of identifying lingbi stone authenticity. General Shi You in practice can be multidirectional expert advice, how to communicate with local Shi Nong, can quickly master the distinguish method, but as the market needs, the rise of lingbi stone, hot, a lot of Shi Nong "processing" technical improvement of the change, and the authenticity continuously put forward new challenge for us, therefore, the authenticity of research, also need to constantly strengthen and improve.
二、如何鉴赏灵璧石的品位等次 灵璧石以其质、形、色、润的独奇特征和瘦、皱、透、漏、丑、悬等千奇百态的丰富变化,而倍受古今中外赏石界的喜爱。那么如何掌握鉴赏灵璧石的品位等次的方法呢?在考察以上特点的基础上,更要从以下几个方面来研究评判。
Second, the grade of the appreciation of lingbi stone order Lingbi stone for its mass, shape, color, embellish alone characteristics and thin, wrinkled, transparent, leakage, ugly, such as hanging thousand odd varieties rich change, and much to admire the ancient and modern, Chinese and foreign stone industry. So how to master the methods of appreciation of lingbi stone grade order? In the investigation, on the basis of the above characteristics, more from the following several aspects to research evaluation.
(一)象形类的鉴赏评判方法 第一、形象逼真。灵璧石中尤以象形石居多,又以狮、虎、马、龙、凤、鸡、麒麟、树松等动植物、瑞兽类居多。在观察“象”的基础上,开始考察其结构完整、比例恰当、厚薄合理、肢体齐全等方面如何,然后再考察其动感、神韵即神态如何,以上几点基本上达到即可定为上品。
(a) pictographic appreciation evaluation method of a class first, image is clear. Lingbi stone, especially in the majority with pictograph, again to the lion, tiger, horse, dragon, chicken, chicken, kirin, pine trees and other plants and animals, benevolent mostly in the class. On the basis of observation "like" and began to examine its structure complete, appropriate percentage, how reasonable thickness and complete body, etc, and then study its dynamic, verve how the manner, the above points can be basically reached a top grade.
第二、是不是原石。所谓原石,就是天然形成,哪怕个别部分多余或残缺也不要紧,尤其要看关键部分,如头、嘴、脖、眼,越是“象”得很的地方越要特别注意,要十分仔细观察验证,无人为加工或粘制。其他部分主要考察伤残、截底等,总之,不能有一点人为动手。
Second, if the original stone. So-called rough stone, it is a natural formation, it doesn't matter even if individual parts or incomplete surplus, especially want to see the key parts, such as head, mouth, neck, eyes, and the more "like" very place more pay special attention to, be very careful observation, no artificial processing or stick. Other parts of the main investigation disability, cut bottom, etc., all in all, there can be a little artificial.
第三、石肤、石肌。温润、细腻、手感好,这对灵璧石品位高低优劣也极为重要。
Third, stone skin and muscle. Moist and smooth, feel is good, this also is very important for lingbi stone grade or vice versa.